Conditions that warrant blood transfusions range from acute trauma to intraoperative blood loss to compromised blood-cell production secondary to disease or treatment. Blood transfusion reactions typically occur when the recipients immune system launches a response against blood cells or other components of the transfused product. These reactions may occur within the first few minutes of transfusion classified as an acute reaction or may develop hours to days later delayed reaction. If red blood cells are destroyed, the reaction may be classified further as hemolytic all other types of reactions are broadly classified as nonhemolytic. Some reactions result from infectious, chemical, or physical forces or from human error during blood-product preparation or administration.
A nurse has been directed to administer 1 unit of platelets to a
All transfusions should be planned during business hours, whenever possible, for patient safety. Only emergency transfusions should be entertained after hours. The following is only a guide for administration of blood components as individual hospital guidelines should be followed. Priming or flushing blood administration sets with a small amount of 0. However 0. For more details on specific aspects of blood component administration, consult the Guidelines for the Administration of Blood Components.
In this section of the NCLEX-RN examination, you will be expected to demonstrate your knowledge and skills of blood and blood products in order to:. Blood transfusions are indicated for the client who has hypovolemia secondary to hemorrhage, anemia or another disease process that is associated with a deficiency in terms the client's clotting or another component of blood, for example. Although hypovolemia can be treated with fluid replacement, this fluid does not provide the client with the oxygen carrying components that only blood has.
Platelets should not be squandered: hospitals can use a range of strategies to become more efficient in the way they use this precious blood component. Platelets are expensive and their use is increasing, so the question of their supply is becoming an issue. In some instances platelet transfusions are administered unnecessarily, wasting a precious resource. This article explores ways of making sure platelets are used appropriately.